RMAN Backup and Recovery Scenarios

Recovery Management (RMAN)
—————————————-

API:DBMS_rcvman, DBMS_rcvcat,DBMS_backup_restore

VIEWS:RC_database,v$rman_configuration,v$rman_status,
v$session, v$rman_backup_job_details

BACKUP RETENTION: No. of backup sets, No. of days

FILES: Backup pieces

CONFIGURATION MODES: NO Catalog Mode, Catalog Mode

BACKUP DESTINATION: Disk ,Tape, NFS

3rd PARTY MML SOFTWARES: Tivoli Data Protector for Oracle
HP data protector for Oracle
Veritas, Legato.

BACKUP TYPES: Full Backup, Incremental/Diffrential Backup, Compressed Backup.

10g/11g New Features: Block Change Tracking (10g),
Compressed Backup (10g),
Backup Encryption (10g),
Channel Failover (10g),
Virtual Private Catalog (11g),
Multi Session Backup (11g).

—————————————————————————
>In catalog mode RMAN keeps the backup information in the reusable section
of the target database controlfile.

>The retention of information in the reusable section of the target database
control file depends on the parameter:

control_record_keep_time [default value is 7 days].

>Even if you specify a bigger value,retention may not be guaranteed since,
controlfile grows upto operating system limitation.

———————————————————————
RMAN INCREMENTAL BACKUP
———————————————————————

>In case of incremental backup, RMAN takes the backup of only modified blocks.

>The different levels of incremental are:
1.Level 0 [Complete]
2.Level 1 [Incremental]
3.Level 2 [Cumulative]

>In order to take incremental backup, first we need to take level 0 backup.

>Without taking level 0, if we initiate level 1, by dfeault RMAN takes
level 0 backup.

>In order to minimize incremental backup time, In 10g oracle has introduced
block change tracking.

SQL> alter database enable block change tracking using file ‘/opt/changetrack.file’;

>From 10.2.0.4 ,Levels greater than 0 and 1 have become obsolete.

RMAN> backup incremental level 0 database;
RMAN> backup incremental level 1 database;
RMAN> backup incremental level 2 database;
(or)
RMAN> backup incremental level 1 cumulative database;

————————————————-
Weekly Backup Script
————————————————-

RMAN> create script weekly-backup
SQL ‘alter system switch logfile’;
backup incremental level 0 database plus archivelog delete all input;
SQL ‘alter system switch logfile’;

RMAN>Run {
execute script weekly-backup;};

RMAN>crosscheck archivelog all;
RMAN>backup database plus archivelog delete all input;

—————————————————————————————–
RMAN NO CATALOG MODE (BACKUP & RECOVERY SCENARIOS)
—————————————————————————————–

root@node1> su – oracle
oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms
oracle@node1> sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL> startup

oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms
oracle@node1> which rman
oracle@node1> rman target /
(or)
oracle@node1> rman nocatalog target /
(or)
oracle@node1> rman
RMAN >connect target /
RMAN> shutdown immediate

oracle@node1> rman target /

RMAN> startup
RMAN> show all;

SQL> select * from v$rman_configuration;

RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 2;
RMAN> show all;

RMAN> spool log to rman.log
RMAN> show all;
RMAN> spool off;
RMAN> exit

oracle@node1> vi rman.log
:set nu
1.CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 2;
2.BACKUP OPTIMIZATION ON; (it takes the backup of read only files at first time)
3.DEVICE TYPE TO DISK;
4.CONTROL FILE AUTOBACKUP ON;
5……….AUTO BACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO ‘/U03/rmanbackup/%F’
(default it takes ORACLE_HOME/dbs)
at the end of file,

6.CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE ON/OFF;
7.CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1/2;

(takes the copies of backup in archivelog mode)

8.CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 2 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUP SET;

CONFIGURE CHANNEL 1 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT ‘/u03/rmanbackup/%U’;
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 2 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT ‘/u03/rmanbackup/%U’;
:wq

Create a structure of RMAN Backup:
———————————————-

root@node1>mkdir -p /u03/rmanbackup
root@node1>chown -R oracle:oinstall /u03/rmanbackup
root@node1>chmod -R 775 /u03/rmanbackup

root@node1> su – oracle

oracle@node1>export ORACLE_SID=hrms
oracle@node1> rman target /

RMAN> @rman.log

RMAN>show all;

RMAN>report schema;

RMAN>report need baackup;

—————————————————————-
Taking Backups and Recovery Scenario’s
—————————————————————-
1.Take the backup of the datafile.
——————————————

RMAN> backup datafile 4;

oracle@node1 rmanbackup> ls

RMAN > report need backup;

To see obsolete Backup:
——————————-

RMAN> report obsolete;

RMAN> backup datafile 4;

RMAN> report need backup;

RMAN> backup datafile 4;

oracle@node1 rmanbackup> ls

RMAN> report obsolete;

RMAN> show all;

RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 3;

RMAN> report obsolete;

RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 2;

RMAN>report obsolete;
2.Delete all obsolete backup’s :
—————————————

RMAN> delete obsolete;

RMAN> delete noprompt obsolete;

RMAN> report obsolete;

3.To See Existing Backups:
———————————–

RMAN> List backup;

RMAN> List backup summary;

4.Deleting the backup:
—————————-

RMAN> delete noprompt backup;

(automatically it deletes os level backup also)

oracle@node1 rmanbackup> ls

RMAN> list backup;

RMAN> backup datafile 4;

RMAN> list backup;

RMAN> delete backupset 7;

RMAN> list backup;

5.Remove File at OS Level:
———————————–

oracle@node1 rmanbackup> rm * (or) rm c-73…………….

RMAN> List backup;

RMAN> crosscheck backup;

(It checks whether the backup is available at os level or not)

RMAN> list backup;

RMAN> delete noprompt expired backup;

RMAN> list backup;

RMAN> report schema;

6.Taking backup of tablespaces:
—————————————–

RMAN> backup tablespace users;

RMAN> backup current controlfile;

RMAN> backup spfile;

RMAN> backup archivelog all;

RMAN> List archivelog all;

7.Taking Full database backup:
——————————

RMAN> backup database plus archivelog;

—————————————————————
RECOVERY SCENARIOS:
—————————————————————
1. Loss of Full Database:
——————————–

RMAN> report schema;

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/
hrms>rm *
hrms>cd /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/hrms/

RMAN> validate database; (If database is not in proper way)

RMAN> shutdown abort;

RMAN> startup nomount;

RMAN> restore controlfile from ‘/u03/rmanbackup/c-765432———‘;

RMAN> alter database mount;

RMAN> restore database;

RMAN> recover database;

RMAN> sql ‘alter database open resetlogs’;

2.Loss of non-system datafiles:
—————————————-

oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms
oracle@node1> rman target /

RMAN> report schema;

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/
hrms>ls
hrms>
hrms> rm users01.dbf

RMAN> validate database;

(Note:its a non-system datafile so no need to shutdown)

RMAN> sql ‘alter database datafile 4 offline’;

RMAN> restore datafile 4;

RMAN> recover datafile 4;

RMAN> sql ‘alter datbase datafile 4 online’;

RMAN> validate database;

RMAN> report schema;

(or) Method:2

RMAN> report schema;

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/
hrms> ls
hrms> rm users01.dbf

RMAN> validate database;

RMAN> List failure;

RMAN> advise failure;

RMAN> repair failure;

3:Loss of system datafile:
———————————

RMAN> report schema;

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/
hrms> ls
hrms> rm system01.dbf

RMAN> validate database;

RMAN> shutdown abort;

oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms

oracle@node1> rman target /

RMAN> startup mount;

RMAN> restore datafile 1;

RMAN> recover datafile 1;

RMAN> alter database open;

4.Loss of controlfiles:
—————————-

oracle@node1> rman target /

oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms

oracle@node1> sqlplus / as sysdba

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/

oracle@node1> ls

oracle@node1> rm comtrol01.ctl

oracle@node1> cd /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/hrms/

oracle@node1> rm control02.ctl

RMAN> validate database;

RMAN> shut abort;

error:

oracle@node1> export ORACLE_SID=hrms

oracle@node1> sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL> shut abort

oracle@node1> rman target /

RMAN> startup nomount

RMAN> restore controlfile from ‘/u03/rmanbackup/c-76539872———‘;

RMAN> alter database mount;

RMAN> recover database;

RMAN> sql ‘alter database open resetlogs’;

5.Loss of Redo Log Files:
———————————

oracle@node1> cd /u02/app/oracle/hrms/
hrms> ls
hrms> rm *.log

RMAN> shutdown abort;
RMAN> startup mount;
RMAN> restore database;
RMAN> recover database;
RMAN> alter database open;

Error: ORA-01110 datafile 1: ‘/u02/app/oracle/hrms/system01.dbf’

RMAN> List Failure;

RMAN> advise failure;

Repair script: /u01/…………….

RMAN> @ /u01/app/oracle…………………………../reco………hm

oracle@node1> cat /u01/appp/oracle………/reco/hm

RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;

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